Monday, September 25, 2023

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Are There Malaria Free Countries

 Malaria is an infection that occurs after Plasmodium parasite attacks the body after transmission through a bite by an infected mosquito. When an infected mosquito bites a person, it releases the Plasmodium parasites into the bloodstream through which they spread to liver cells. The parasites reproduce in these cells till they force them open. Thousands of parasites get out of the damaged liver cells into the bloodstream before entering the red blood cells to infect them and reproduce again. In the process, parasites evidence based practice writing help kill more blood cells and continue to attack the uninfected unless until treatment halts their development. The process continues until it causes death if there is no treatment.

Malaria is difficult to control due to various issues affecting endemic countries.  Lack of appropriate proper infrastructure for evidence based practice writing services surveillance and control programs of mosquitoes are some of the factors that prevent the eradication of malaria. Indoor residual spraying and bed nets with insecticides have been helping to suppress mosquito populations, but insecticide resistance is an increasing concern.

Malaria Eradication and Elimination Status

World Health Organization (WHO) has the mandate to issue a certification of malaria eradication to show that a country is a malaria-free meaning elimination of mosquito-borne malaria transmission and limiting the risk of malaria transmission to only introduced cases.  Countries that achieve zero cases of locally acquired malaria for three consecutive years can get WHO to certify malaria-free status. Malaria elimination is another status in the fight against malaria that WHO grants to countries with zero incidences of infection due to human malaria parasites infection within a geographical area after deliberate efforts. WHO places 109 countries where malaria has been widespread in these four phases according to the level of progress towards elimination of the disease.

  1. Malaria free status

 A report by WHO shows that USA, Europe, Central Asia and the Caucasus are the region with malaria-free status.

  1. Prevention of reintroduction

These countries do not have malaria infections spread by mosquitoes.  Mauritius, Jamaica, Morocco, Syria, and Russia are among the six nations in this phase that will qualify them for certification as malaria-free status if they maintain zero infection for three consecutive years.

  1. Elimination phase

This status is for countries that annually record less than a single malaria infection cases for a 1000 inhabitants living in high-risk areas.  The countries in this status are making excellent progress towards malaria control and elimination.

  • Algeria
  • Armenia
  • Argentina
  • El Salvador
  • Egypt
  • Iraq
  • Paraguay
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Republic of Korea
  • Turkmenistan
  1. Pre-elimination phase

WHO classifies countries under Pre-elimination status if the malaria diagnostic tests by health practitioners show less than 5% of cases with malaria-like symptoms are proven thus by a diagnosis.

Countries without cases of malaria transmission by mosquitoes or those that have been making much progress in malaria eradication must continue taking measure to prevent relapsing to transmission status. The reason is that people who travel into these countries from countries with widespread infection of Plasmodium parasite by mosquito cause a risk of spread.  For instance, US does not have malaria protozoan transmissions but has 1500 to 2000 traveler imported cases every year increasing risk of mosquito transmission in the local area.

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